Cholesterol Definition

Clogged Artery with platelets and cholesterol plaque
Clogged Artery with platelets and cholesterol plaque, concept for health risk for obesity or dieting and nutrition problems

Cholesterol HDL | Cholesterol LDL | VLDL Cholesterol | Cholesterol Levels


What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy or fat-like substance that is produced by the liver. It is important for cell membrane, vitamin D, digestion and the formation of some hormones. Cholesterol does not dissolve in water so it can not reach itself in other parts of the body itself. Lipoproteins called cholesterol help in reaching other parts of the body through the bloodstream. There are two main forms of lipoprotein

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), also called “bad cholesterol”, can accumulate in the arteries and cause serious health problems such as heart attack or stroke.

High-density lipoprotein (HDL), sometimes called “good cholesterol”, helps LDL to return cholesterol back to the liver, to remove it.


What is high cholesterol?

Consuming foods that contain high amounts of fat, LDL cholesterol levels increase in your blood. It is called high cholesterol, hypercholesterolemia or hyperlipidemia.

If the level of LDL cholesterol is high or HDL cholesterol levels are very low, then fat deposits in the blood vessels begin to occur. This coagulation causes difficult blood flow through your arteries. This can cause problems in your body, especially in your heart and mind and it can also be fatal.

People of all ages and backgrounds may have high cholesterol. High cholesterol is one of those risk factors that can cause heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

High Cholesterol In

India, the level of total cholesterol is rising in population-based studies in India. Recent studies have shown that high cholesterol is present in 25-30% of the city and 15-20% of the rural population. However, this level is lower than the countries with high income.


Types and Level of Cholesterol


What are the types of cholesterol?

Cholesterol is divided into four types – 

Total cholesterol

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL: Low-density lipoproteins)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL: High-density lipoproteins)

Triglyceride – a type of fat in the blood


What should cholesterol levels be?

Total cholesterol Less than 200 mg/dl – ideal level 

200-239 mg / dl – risk level

240 mg/dl and more – High-Risk Level

High-density lipoprotein (HDL: High-density lipoproteins)

Less than 40 mg/dl (in men), less than 50 mg/dl (in women) – Risk of heart disease

More than 60 mg/dl – something safe from heart disease

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL: Low-density lipoproteins)

Less than 100 mg / dl – best level

130-159 mg / dl – boundary line level

160 – 189 mg / dl – high level

190 mg / dl and above – too much

Triglyceride Less than 150 mg / dl –

normal level

150-199 mg / dl – boundary line or higher level

200-499 mg / dl – high level

Above 500 mg / dl – too much level


Signs and Symptoms of High Cholesterol

symptoms of cholesterol

High cholesterol is a risk factor for other diseases and it does not have any sign of its own. However regular blood tests can detect blood cholesterol levels in the blood.

All people 20 years of age or older should check their blood cholesterol levels at least once every 5 years. To measure cholesterol level, it is best to have a blood test called Lipoprotein profile.

Your doctor may ask you to repeatedly check cholesterol if you have a family history of high cholesterol or if you experience the following risk factors –


Gain weight.

Or if you smoke.


Causes of High Cholesterol

causes of high cholesterol

The following can be the causes of Higher levels of cholesterol :

Diet – eating too much-saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol can cause high cholesterol. Saturated fat and cholesterol are made in animal foods such as meat, milk, eggs, butter, and paneer. Trans fat is found in fried foods and packaged foods such as biscuits and chips.

Weight – Triglycerides can increase due to overweight and LDL (bad cholesterol) can also increase.

Activity – Lack of physical activity can increase LDL (bad cholesterol).

Age and Gender – After 20 years of age, your cholesterol progresses naturally. In men, cholesterol levels usually decrease after 50 years of age, whereas in women, it is very low till menopause. Then it increases like men’s level.

Some diseases – Some diseases may increase the risk of high cholesterol such as hypothyroidism, prolonged kidney disease and some types of liver disease. (Read more – Treatment of Kidney Disease )

Family history – If your family members have high cholesterol or had it, then you too can have it.

Smoking – Smoking can increase LDL (bad cholesterol).

Some medicines – some medicines can also increase the level of LDL (bad cholesterol). These drugs include thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, estrogen and corticosterone.


How to prevent high cholesterol?

prevent high cholesterol

Adopting a healthy lifestyle along with aerobic exercise and low-fat diet can reduce the risk of obesity and high cholesterol, thereby reducing the risk of heart disease. Knowing your cholesterol is the first step in controlling your other levels.

Determine dietary goals to prevent high cholesterol – Try to take less than 7% of calories and less than 200 milligrams of cholesterol by saturated fat (fat) in daily intake.

You can take up to 30% of calories from total fat, but this should be the most unsaturated fat (fat), which does not increase cholesterol levels.

To promote the power to reduce your LDL level, consume more soluble fiber (grains, beans, peas and many fruits and vegetables). To know what’s in your food items, read the nutrition label in it.

Buy foods with low saturated fat (cholesterol) and cholesterol.

Reduce excess weight and maintain a healthy weight.

Quit smoking. (Read more – Household Remedies for Quitting Smoking )

Exercise in most days of the week for at least 30 minutes.

If you drink alcohol then drink it in small quantities.


Diagnosis of High Cholesterol

A blood test is done to check the cholesterol levels, which is called a lipid panel or lipid profile. This test reports the following things –

Total cholesterol

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL: Low-density lipoproteins)

High-density lipoprotein (HDL: High-density lipoproteins)

Triglyceride – a type of fat in the blood

Nine or 12 hours before eating blood samples for the most accurate test, do not eat or drink anything except water. The correct level of cholesterol is explained above.


High Cholesterol Treatment

The goal of treatment of high cholesterol is to reduce the likelihood of having a heart attack or stroke. Its goal is not only to reduce your cholesterol level.

There are two types of treatment for high cholesterol –

Changes in lifestyle

Medicines called statins.

The way to reduce your risk will depend on how much you have a heart attack and stroke risk. It will also depend on your idea about taking medicines. Your doctor can help you to know your risk.
Your doctor can help you balance the benefits and risks of your treatment options.

Changes in Lifestyle Changes in lifestyle are always important, even if you are taking medicines to reduce your risk.

Your doctor may suggest some of the following lifestyle changes –

Eat healthy food for heart

If you need to lose weight then do so and keep a healthy weight.


Do not smoke.

Drugs called statins, people also take medicines called stetin in addition to lifestyle changes. Some people are more at risk of having a heart attack or stroke, and they can take statins because this medicine reduces this risk.
For the need for statins for others, therapists measure the level of risk of heart attack and stroke.


Factors that increase the risk of high cholesterol


Some saturated fat which is found in animal products and trans fat that is found in biscuits and chips, can increase your cholesterol level. Your total cholesterol can also increase with full-fat dairy products.

Having obesity 30 or more Body Mass Index (BMI) increases the risk of high cholesterol.

Waist Measure

If your waist size is 40 inches (102 cm) (in men) or 35 inches (89 cm) (in women) or more, then you are more at risk of high cholesterol.

By Lack exercising a lack of

exercise, your HDL or “good” cholesterol increases and the size of the LDL forming particles increases which makes it less harmful. (Read more – Benefits of exercise )

Smoking damages the walls of your blood vessels, thereby increasing the likelihood of fat freezing. Smoking can also lower the level of your HDL cholesterol.


high blood sugar increases your LDL cholesterol level and reduces HDL cholesterol levels. It also damages the lining of your arteries


High cholesterol complications

High cholesterol can cause you to have atherosclerosis, in which there is a dangerous accumulation of cholesterol on the walls of your arteries. These deposits can reduce blood flow to your arteries, which can lead to the following complications –

Chest Pain

If your arteries have been affected that lead to your heart, you may have chest pain ( angina ) and other symptoms of coronary artery disease.

Heart attack

If fat deposits break, blood clots can become blocked, which block the flow of blood so that you may have a heart attack.

Like stroke

heart attacks, if blood flow is blocked due to blood clots in your brain, then you may have stroke.


Diet to Avoid in High Cholesterol

Do not eat the following things in high cholesterol –

Saturated fat and oil-rich substances (like butter and coconut oil )

Trans fat (such as biscuits and chips)

Fat-rich foods (such as meats, poultry, and fish )

The yellow portion of egg (yoke)

Milk foods (such as cream and cheese)

Market food (such as potato fries and burgers)

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