What is dementia or dementia?
Dementia is commonly referred to the lack of mental capacity, in which the ability to think reduces, thereby affecting daily life.
Dementia is not a disease, but a syndrome (Syndrome / many diseases have a combination of symptoms), whose symptoms are common in many brain disorders. Its symptoms include lack of memory, difficulty in thinking, problems not being solved and difficulty in choosing words. It reduces the ability of a person to perform everyday activities. The mood and behavior of people suffering from dementia changes. Normally it increases the likelihood of aging after aging.
In the end, dementia completely eliminates the ability to complete daily activities, such as driving, doing household chores and even personal care such as bathing, dressing and eating. The probability of suffering from dementia increases with age. Often dementia occurs after halfway life, after most 65 years.
Certain types of dementia can be cured or completely cured. The results of its recovery often depend on how quickly the reason for it has been detected and its treatment has started. Other types of dementia are immutable, which can not be cured and its most common type is Alzheimer’s disease.
Symptoms of depression may be like the initial symptoms of dementia, which are treated with anti-depressant drugs.
Types of dementia
Symptoms of dementia and its increase depends on which type of dementia the person has.
Some general forms of dementia, which can be diagnosed, include the following –
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Alzheimer’s disease occurs in 60 to 80 percent of cases. It usually grows slowly. After its diagnosis, a person lives normally for 4 to 8 years, but there are also some people who live for nearly 20 years after their diagnosis. Due to Alzheimer’s disease, there is a change in the brain in which some proteins are formed which harm the nerve.
body’s dementia is a form of dementia that is caused by the accumulation of proteins in the cortex. In addition to lack of memory and confusion, Levi’s body dementia may also cause some other conditions, such as- Sleep disorders,
Difficulty in other activities, etc.
Vascular dementia, also called post- stroke or multi-infarct dementia. It occurs in almost 10 percent of dementia cases. This is due to the stopping of blood vessels, in addition to this, it can also be caused by stroke or any other type of injury in the brain.
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative condition (a condition in which the nervous system is damaged), which can cause dementia and may work like Alzheimer’s in later stages. Due to this disease, difficulty in running other activities and carriage etc. But due to this some people also become dementia.
Frontotemporal dementia shows a group of people who often cause change in personality and behavior. It can also be difficult to understand or speak a language. Frontontemporal dementia can occur due to several conditions including pick’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is a type of dementia in which many types of other dementia are involved, causing abnormalities in the brain. It is most common in Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia, but it also includes other types of dementia.
Stages of Dementia
What are the steps of dementia?
Dementia has 7 steps, which are as follows –
Stage 1: No cognitive deficiency
In phase 1, the person acts normally, there is no mental impairment in it, it is mentally healthy. Those who do not have dementia are kept in this phase.
Stage 2: Very light cognitive deficiency
stage 2 contains general amnesia, which has been linked with age. For example, forget the names and forget about familiar things. Usually, symptoms are not clear even in front of loved ones, family or patient’s doctor.
Stage 3: Light cognitive deficiency
This phase increases forgetfulness, as well as lack of attention and lack of work performance. People at this stage often forget things and can not even choose the right words. After reaching this level, the problems associated with the patient’s family and family are revealed when he goes to a new place. Note that the researchers will include this phase either in the first stage or in the first phase of the third phase (initial, medium or serious staging system).
Stage 4 moderate nasal deficiency
In this situation, people with dementia have difficulty concentrating, they do not remember the recent incidents and in matters of managing money etc., difficulties like traveling alone at new places . The concerned people have difficulty in completing complex tasks because their mental capacity denies them. Such people begin to keep themselves away from friends and family because of their social causes. During doctor’s interview, he can find out about his methods of speaking, physical examination and dementia and his disease.
Stage 5: Medium intensive cognitive deficiency
The phase 5 people begin to lose too much memory due to which they have to get the help of another person to complete their activities (for example, dressing, bathing, cooking ). There is a major reason for lack of memory in this and going forward can cause problems like losing memory . For example, such a person may not miss their address or remember the phone number and it can happen that they do not even remember the day or time or where they are presently.
Stage 6: Severe cognitive deficiency (moderate insanity)
People of this phase need extensive help to complete daily activities like wearing clothes themselves. In such cases, the patients also begin to forget even the names of their close relatives and can remember very little about the recent incidents. Some patients just remember the details of their first life. They also have difficulty in counting down the 10th. At this stage urinary incontinence (reduction in bladder or intestinal control) is also a problem. The ability to speak correctly also reduces. In the change of personality, vanity (understanding something like that which is not true), compulsions (repeat work, such as cleanliness) or problems like anxiety and excitement can occur.
Stage 7: Very serious cognitive deficiency
People at this level actually lose the ability to speak or interact. They need help to complete all normal daily activities (such as using toilets, food). They often lose motivational skills, for example, the ability to walk or sit on the chair etc.
Symptoms of Dementia
What are the symptoms of dementia?
People suffering from dementia can experience any of the symptoms mentioned below, mostly due to brain damage – some of them may see their symptoms themselves –
Losing memory lately – this would be an indication that repeatedly asking a single question.
Difficulty fulfilling domestic tasks – for example, making tea or coffee or cooking.
Problems in conversation – difficulty with language; Forgetting simple words and using wrong words instead.
Wandering – Forgetting an old well-known street or road
Problems of thinking in a nutshell – for example, money transactions.
Do not forget to keep things – for example, forgetting those places where everyday items are kept, such as keys or purses.
Changing the mood or behavior – sudden change in attitude or behavior (Read more – What to eat to improve mood )
Personality changes – such as being irritable, suspicious or fearful
Pushing in the initiative – do not show any interest in starting something or going somewhere.
Causes of Dementia
Why is dementia?
Dimethia is usually caused by disturbances in the cerebral cortex, which is a part of the brain. It also works to consider, make decisions and maintain personality. When brain cells are destroyed in these parts, it becomes the cause of cognitive defects, which is the specialty of dementia.
Some types of dementia whereby the risk of its occurrence increases, such as –
Tumors in the brain,
Infection (such as meningitis, HIV- AIDS, or syphilis ),
Hydrocephalus (when the fluid is filled in the brain),
Hormonal disorders (hormonal disorders such as thyroid disease ),
Metabolic disorders (such as liver disease, pancreatitis, or kidney disease that disturb the balance of chemicals in the blood),
Hypoxia (poor oxygenation in the blood),
Lack of nutrition (for example, vitamin deficiencies ),
Several days of alcohol.
The two main factors of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease (persistent loss of nerve cells, due to which the permanent absence of permanent detection) and vascular dementia (loss of functioning of brain due to frequent small strokes) –
Alzheimer ‘s a disease is the most common form of dementia in Alzheimer ‘s disease, whose symptoms are irreversible. Alzheimer’s brain destroys brain cells due to abnormal protein accumulation in the brain. Whose work is to control mental functions in the field of the brain.
is the second largest form of dementia. This is dementia atherosclerosis (in which fat, cholesterol and other substances accumulate inside and outside the artery layer). Due to these obstructions the flow of blood in the brain stops, due to which many strokes are likely to occur.
Vascular dementia is generally considered to be related to high BP , high cholesterol , heart disease , sugar disease (diabetes) etc. Treating these diseases can prevent vascular dementia from growing but due to this, it is not possible to re-run the brain function.
other irreversible medical conditions can also cause dementia (at very low rates), which is example Parkinson’s disease.
What are the risk factors for having dementia?
Age is considered to be the strongest risk factor for dementia. As the age increases, the likelihood of developing dementia increases. There are risk factors associated with aging – Increasing risk of high BP, heart disease and stroke
After mid-life, changes in nerve cells, DNA, cell structure and a decrease in sex hormones. (Read more – sex karne ke tarike )
Deficiency of the body’s natural health system
Changes in the immune system
men and women have the same risk of developing dementia. Vascular dementia risk is slightly higher in men than in women. The reason for this is that men are more prone to stroke and heart disease, which can cause vascular and mixed dementia.
The role of genes in the development of genetics dementia has not yet been fully understood, but researchers have received very important information in recent years.
As such, some racial communities have more risk of dementia than others. For example, people like South Asia
Lifestyle factor Physical laziness – This is one of the most prominent risk factors for developing dementia. This has also been linked to the increased risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.
Excessive alcohol – Drinking alcohol regularly increases the risk of dementia in one person. Which includes the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular dementia.
Smoking – Smoking causes excessive harm to the lungs and vascular vascular system including blood vessels in the brain. Smoking increases the risk of developing dementia anytime in later life, especially the development of Alzheimer’s disease. (Read more – Remedies for quitting smoking )
Head injury – a serious blow on the head, especially on the head or falling on the head – in such a situation, the risk of dementia increases further in life.
Prevention of Dementia
How can prevent dementia?
There is no vaccine to avoid dementia.
Nevertheless, healthy lifestyle choices such as health food, exercise, intellectual and social activity etc. can help to reduce the risk of developing dementia. However, there is no guarantee that these preventive measures will work for every person. None of these have been scientifically confirmed.
1. Diet / Nutrition –
According to research, consumption of ‘healthy-brain’ diet can reduce the risk of developing dementia. Under this , eat plenty of fruits , vegetables , whole grains , other mixed carbohydrates , potassium , calcium , fiber and magnesium. Supplements such as Vitamin B12 , Vitamin C , Vitamin E and Follet help in maintaining a healthy brain. If possible, consume such food that directly receives these nutrients.
2. Exercise –
Regular exercise and making habit of it bring changes in lifestyle. When it comes to brain health, there is no need to exercise too much and there is no need to spend too much time for more benefits. The most important thing in it is that it should be done on a regular basis (i.e., for most people 30 minutes per day is enough for a better result.)
Cardiovascular exercise (cardiovascular exercise – the exercise that strengthens the pumping force of your heart, such as swimming , walking , running and bicycling ) and resistance training; such as weight lifting that helps strengthen muscles It is one of the best exercises for health.
Exercise is beneficial because it increases blood flow to the brain and reduces the risk of having vascular dementia. Regular physical exercise helps to maintain hormonal balance, which stimulates the vital chemicals that maintain the existence of brain cells. Thus, it can prevent dementia from starting.
(Read more – Exercise to stay fit )
3. Mental Activity –
Mental exercise can reduce the risk of having Alzheimer’s. By keeping the brain active, contact between brain cells can be strengthened and mental strength can be increased as well.
It is important to have the idea of lifelong learning to be mentally active. This means that always have to learn new things, instead of doing old things again, experience something new. Different and new things keep the brain strong and promote healthy minds.
(Read more – ways to make brains faster )
4. Connecting to Socialism –
Living together with people of the family and staying in touch with friends, doing so reduces the risk of developing dementia. As such, should always participate in the network of family and friends, which can reduce the symptoms of dementia.
Social contact is also good for the brain because it stimulates contact between brain cells. According to research, social activities that combine physical and mental activity are most effective in preventing dementia.
Diagnosis of Dementia
How is dementia diagnosed?
1. dementia brain scans (Dementia brain scans)
Brain scans are often used to diagnose dementia. They need to check the evidence of other potential problems that reflect a person’s symptoms, such as a major stroke or brain tumor. Under the CT scan (CT Scan) and MRI scans (MRI Scan) is a stroke or symptoms of a brain tumor is used to investigate.
The scan gets the full information of the bad blood vessels (if bad), which is bad due to having vascular dementia. In addition to this, it is also known that no part of the brain is shrinking. In the frotontomporal dementia, the brain’s frontal and temporal lobes begin to shrink mainly. In some cases, electroencephalogram (EEG) can be done, which records the electrical signals of the brain (brain activity).
2. Blood test for dementia
Blood tests ( blood tests ) are done for those who are suspected of dementia . Other types of conditions are also known in this blood test, such as thyroid hormones and levels of vitamin B12 etc.
3. Mini Mental Status Examination (Mini Mental State Examination)
A widely used test is the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE-MMSE).
The MMSE examines the status of various mental abilities, including:
Short and long term memory
Limit to keep focus
Keep focused (read more – method of meditation )
Language and communication skills
Ability to make plans
Ability to understand instructions
There is no test to diagnose MMSE dementia. However, it is used to assess the levels of mental deformity, which may be due to dementia sufferers.
4. cognitive dementia test (Cognitive dementia test)
Cognitive dementia testing is considered to be a reliable method of detecting dementia signs.
4.1 Mental Test Score
In the brief mental test score there are some such questions, for example-
what is your age?
what is the time?
What is the year
What is your date of birth?
On each correct answer a score is obtained, in which there is a cognitive impairment in that person after getting six or fewer marks out of ten.
4.2 General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) Test
During the testing of the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG), their supervision or care is observed for the patients of relatives and carers. This test is designed for doctors, such investigations can first evaluate the mental capacity of a person and in the second part of the test a person is examined and a question is asked for this. –
Trouble remembering recent events or conversations,
Can not choose the right words and use the wrong words at its place,
Having difficulty in counting or keeping money or medicines,
Need to get more help while leaving out etc.
If these questions reflect a lack of memory, then standard tests are suggested, such as regular blood tests and brain CT scan, as explained above.
Treatment of Dementia
What is the treatment of dementia?
Treatment of dementia depends on its cause. There is no cure for most dementia, which includes Alzheimer’s disease, which can prevent them from growing. But there are some medicines that can temporarily improve their symptoms. Medicines used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, sometimes such drugs are also used to help other types of dementia symptoms. There are some treatments in which medicines are not used, which are very helpful in their symptoms.
Most types of dementia can not be cured. But there are some such pathways that can improve the symptoms of the patient.
Dementia symptoms can be improved by taking the following drugs mentioned below –
Cholinesterase inhibitors (Cholinesterase inhibitors) – Donepejil Arisept (Donepezil Aricept these drugs), Raivstigmin (Akselon- Exelon), Galentamin (Galantamine) which include the levels of the chemical components of the brain increase strengthens the power of memory and decision-making . However, these medicines work in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, but these drugs can also be prescribed for the treatment of other dementia, including- Vascular Dementia, Parkinson’s Dementia and Levi Body Dementia.
I Memantine – I amantine, Memantine namenda) works in the order of activity of glutamate. In some cases, Memantine is determined with the Cholinesterase inhibitors.
Other medicines – Your doctor may prescribe other medicines for other symptoms like depression, sleep deprivation, or restlessness etc.- Psychotropic drugs (Psychotropic Drugs) – Psychiatrist drugs (Psychotropic drugs) is used as supportive treatment of nature-related issues that occur in dementia. For example, antipsychotic medications (usually used for the treatment of disorders such as schizophrenia), which control the patient’s continuous growing stimuli. It can also be affected for patients who do not respond to non-pharmacological drugs. In these conditions, these medicines are also used, where the patient is at risk of harming himself or others. However, in such a situation, treatment of short duration should be treated rather than in order of treatment.
Anxiety-resistant medicines – commonly used for treating anxiety-resistant medicines, anxiety disorders) are used to treat patients such as excitement and bacteriophage. Similarly antidepressant medicines are determined to reduce the symptoms of depression. Treatment of symptoms of depression is particularly important because, because of depression, people with dementia have a lot of difficulty in remembering things and enjoying life. Due to depression, they also have a problem of taking care of another person. Depression can be treated with significant improvements in the patient, which can improve the patient’s ability to participate in mood and other activities.
In general, medicines should be given very carefully and effective doses to patients of dementia, so that they are less likely to have side effects of drugs. It is usually necessary to maintain patient care while taking medication. With each of these drugs, side effects and many other risks are associated. Therefore, careful risk-benefits should be evaluated before treatment starts and during regular treatment. However, it should be kept in mind that these medicines can not cure dementia nor can reduce or eliminate symptoms. There is no evidence that the lifting of these medicines can extend the life of anybody. However, these medicines can improve the activity of some patients for a longer period.
Please take advice from the doctor before taking any medication.
2. Other treatments
The techniques mentioned below can help reduce dementia and experience relief in people with dementia.
Music Therapy , which includes listening to peaceful music.
Stomach therapy , in which animals are raised, such as raising the dog and walking around with it, can help improve the mood and behavior of people with dementia.
Aromatherapy , which is used in the oils of aromatic plants.
Massage Therapy , which provides relief from problems such as patient discomfort with the help of massage.
Art therapy , like making art, focuses attention to the process rather than result.
Complications with Dementia
What complications can arise from dementia?
There may be some such complexities, which include the following –
Feeling less capable of doing things than before, such as lacking in any work or self-care for yourself,
Decreased ability to interact with others compared to earlier,
Lack of lifespan,
Increased infection within the body
As the disease progresses, there may be additional complications, such as –
Difficulty doing more than one task at a time,
Difficulty solving problems,
It takes more time to do hard activities,
Losing on well-known paths,
Personality changes and lack of social skills,
Losing interest in things that were previously enjoyed,
Changes in sleep habits, often awake at night,
Difficulty reading or writing,
Decrease in ability to identify decision-making and hazards,
Use the wrong word, do not pronounce words properly, talk about unnecessary things,
Hallucinations, debates, hurting and violent behavior,
Confusion, depression, excitement,
Difficulty in doing normal work,
Difficulty swallowing both foods and liquids,
Incontinence (decreased control of urination or defecation),
Difficulty doing things easily done, such as – Using or reading a checkbook
Playing complex games such as bridges
Get new information or routine etc.
Steps to Avoid Dementia
The following things should be avoided by dementia patients –
If you smoke, leave it immediately, it would be better if smoking stopped as soon as possible (or smoking should never be started).
Fried food / processed meat,
especially nitrite and nitrates, which are rich in processed meat , protect against nitrosamine compounds.
packed with MSG (mono-sodium glutamate) and ready-to-eat food, in which chips, salad (chutney / sauce), night meal in the fridge and other monosodium glutamate etc., known as MCG, are used And is done in prepared foods. By using it, the foods do not get worse for a long time and their taste also increases. However, its intake increases the risks and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
Weight Gain / Obesity Becoming
physically lazy may become one of the most important risk factors for dementia. (Read more – easy remedies for weight loss and domestic remedies to reduce obesity )
Stress / Depression
When a person is in the age of 60 or older, stress may be an early symptom of dementia at this age rather than risk factors.
Hypertension and cardiovascular disease
These cardiovascular conditions and blood pressure are linked to dementia. The reason for this is that there is not enough blood in the brain that causes vascular dementia. (Read more – Measures to reduce High BP )
Drinking more alcohol
regularly and consuming more amounts of alcohol increases the risk of developing dementia.
Eating in Dementia
What do you eat in dementia (dementia)?
In dementia, we should consume the Mediterranean diet, like a little red meat and all types of cereals, fruits and vegetables, fish and nuts, olive oil is also very beneficial.
Here are some dietary advice for patients with dementia –
Green leafy vegetables – spinach , leaf cabbage , mustard leaves ( mustard greens ), these leaves are foliated and filled with vitamin B 9, which improve patient’s sensation and reduce depression and stress.
Leafy vegetables – Broccoli , Cauliflower , Brassal sprouts etc. have a great amount of folate. Along with this there is also carotenoide, which keeps the level of homo-cysteine low. Homo-seiston is a type of amino acid, which is related to the risk of a nomenclature.
Beans and legumes – In these foods, multi-quantities of folate like iron , magnesium and potassium are found, which helps normal body functions and neuron firing.
Whole grains – contains quinoa, cit and gluten-free oats (things made from bread, bread or flour are not included)
Berries and cherries – These fruits contain anthocyanin which protects the brain from the losses leading to free radicals in the body. It has many types of fighting properties in the body, besides this, there are a considerable amount of antioxidant and vitamin E and C.
Sitaf, squash, asparagus, tomatoes , carrots and beetroots – If these vegetables are not cooked more then they contain vitamins A, folate and iron which help in the sensation of the brain.
Omega 3 – People who regularly include Omega 3s in their diet every day. Those people have less chance of having problems with the brain than 26%, compared to those who can not consume Omega 3S regularly. These fatty acids help the brain stay in the right shape. Omega 3S is usually the source of fish, linseed seeds , olive oil (not sunflower oil ) and some good variety of omega 3S supplements.
Almonds, cashews, walnuts, peanuts, Picken nuts – these omega-3’s, Omega 6’s, vitamin E and vitamin B6, magnesium and folate are found in significant amounts.
Pumpkin and Sunflower seeds – These seeds contain zinc, colin and vitamin E.
Cinnamon, turmeric and cumin – all these types of spices help to break the brain of the plock and reduce the inflammation in the brain, due to which there are problems related to memory in the brain. Apart from this, you can also reduce the risk of those diseases. The effect of which affects your brain, such as obesity , heart-related diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure etc.